Where smoking prevalence is increasing, females may account for more of the increase than males.
In high-income countries, non-traditional tobacco products such as snus, lozenges, and chewing tobacco are promoted as alternatives in smoke-free environments or smoking cessation aids, but they are unsafe or have unknown effects. For example, smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas. Initial laboratory analyses of e-cigarettes found carcinogens and toxic chemicals in some samples. However, more research is needed before their harm or benefit can be accurately determined. Non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke are also at increased risk of lung cancer and possibly other cancers. Secondhand smoke is estimated to cause 21,400 lung cancer deaths worldwide each year. Lung cancer is highly fatal. In order to reduce these deaths, countries must work to prevent initiation of tobacco use in young people and encourage current smokers to quit.