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The Cancer Continuum

Quote:

Anonymous. Protection of Towns from Fire. February 4, 1735. The Pennsylvania Gazette.

Effect of tobacco price increase and reduced consumption:

Jha P. Avoidable global cancer deaths and total deaths from smoking. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009;9(9):655-64.

Text:

Brawley O. Avoidable cancer deaths globally. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):67-8.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs- 2007. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2007.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Household use of solid fuels and high-temperature frying. Vol 95. Lyon; IARC; 2010.

Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;380(9859):2224-60.

Lin JS, Eder M, Weinmann S. Behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(3):190-201.

Smith RA, Brooks D, Cokkinides V, et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013:doi 10.

Thun MJ, DeLancey JO, Center MM, et al. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(1):100-110.

World Health Organization. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Air Pollution. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/air_pollution/en/, accessed December 3, 2013.

Figure 1:

Connor SR, Sepulveda Bermedo MC (Eds). Global Atlas of Palliative Care at the End of Life. London: Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance; 2014. Available from: http://www.who .int/nmh/Global_Atlas_of_Palliative_Care.pdf, accessed August 14, 2014.

Engholm G FJ, Christensen N, Johannesen TB, et al. NORDCAN: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence and Survival in the Nordic Countries, Version 5.2 (December 2012). Available from: http://www.ancr.nu, accessed February 1, 2013.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet. 1996;348(9040):1472-77.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean and Central America. Lyon; IARC: 2011.

Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet. 1996;348(9040): 1467-1471.

Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219-29.

Mandel JS, Church TR, Ederer F, Bond JH. Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(5):434-37.

Sant M, Allemani C, Santaquilani M, et al. EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995-1999. Results and commentary. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(6):931-91.

Figure 2:

Thun MJ, Carter BD, Feskanich D, et al. 50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:351-64. Unpublished additional analyses.

Figure 3:

Goldie SJ, O’Shea M, Campos NG, et al. Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16,18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccine. 2008;26(32):4080-93.

Figure 4:

Boschmonar MG, Alvarez YG, García AM, et al. Childhood cancer survival in Cuba. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(8):763-7.

Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (Eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2010, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2010/, based on November 2012 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2013.

Myers MH, Heise HW, Li FP, Miller RW. Trends in cancer survival among U.S. white children, 1955-1971. J Pediatr. 1975;87(5):815-8.

Perme MP, Jereb B. Trends in survival after childhood cancer in Slovenia between 1957 and 2007. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26(4):240-51.

Swaminathan R, Rama R, Shanta V. Childhood cancers in Chennai, India, 1990–2001: Incidence and survival. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(11):2607-11.

Health Promotion: A Population and Systems Approach

Quote:

MD Anderson Center. Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, MD Anderson Center, Annual Report 2012. 2012. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/ education-and-research/departments-programs-and-labs/ departments-and-divisions/division-of-cancer-prevention -and-population-sciences/annual-report-fy12-081413.pdf, accessedAugust 15, 2014.

WHO Global School Health Initiative:

World Health Organization. Global school health initiative. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/ gshi/en/, accessed September 3, 2013.

Text:

Linnan L, Bowling M, Childress J, et al. Results of the 2004 National Worksite Health Promotion Survey. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:1503-9.

Woolf SH. The power of prevention and what it requires. JAMA. 2008;299:2437-9.

World Health Organization. Health Promotion. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/health_promotion/en/, accessed September 3, 2013.

World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Policy and Action for Cancer Prevention. Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR; 2009.

World Health Organization. Global school health initiative. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/ gshi/en/, accessed September 3, 2013.

Map: Cigarette Warning Labels

World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2013. Geneva: WHO; 2013. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85380/1/9789241505871_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessedAugust 15, 2014.

Map: Nutrition Labels

Hawkes C. Government and voluntary policies on nutrition labelling: a global overview, in Innovations in Food Labelling. Albert J (Ed). Philadelphia; The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Woodhead Publishing; 2010.

Figure 1:

Withall J, Jago R, Fox KR. The effect of a community-based social marketing campaign on recruitment and retention of low-income groups into physical activity programmes. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:836.

Figure 2:

World Health Organization. Milestones in Health Promotion: Statements from Global Conferences. Geneva: WHO; 2009.

Tobacco Control

Quote:

Jordans F. WHO chief slams tobacco firms that ‘harass’ gov’ts. 2011. Available from: http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/ health/articles/2011/11/23/who_chief_slams_tobacco_firms_that _harass_govts/, accessed August 19, 2014.

Plain package labelling in Australia:

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Tobacco Unfiltered. Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/tobacco _unfiltered/tag/plain+packaging, accessed August 19, 2014.

Text:

Blecher E. The economics of tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries. PhD Dissertation. University of Cape Town. 2011.

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Cigarette affordability. 2014. Available from: http://global.tobaccofreekids.org/files/ pdfs/en/TAX_Cigarette_affordability_summary_en.pdf, accessed March 19, 2014.

Levy DT, Benjakul S, Ross H, Ritthiphakdee B. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: Results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model. Tob Control. 2008;17(1):53-9.

Levy D, de Almeida LM, Szklo A. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: The effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation. PLoS Medicine. 2012;9(11): e1001336.

World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/ fctc/signatories_parties/en/, accessed March 19, 2014.

World Health Organization. Tobacco Free Initiative. 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/en/, accessed March 19, 2014.

Map:

World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/ fctc/signatories_parties/en/, accessed May 1, 2014.

Figure 1:

World Health Organization. Tobacco Free Initiative. 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/en/, accessedMarch 19, 2014.

Figure 2:

Levy DT, Benjakul S, Ross H, Ritthiphakdee B. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: Results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model. Tob Control. 2008;17(1):53-9.

Levy D, de Almeida LM, Szklo A. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: The effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation. PLoS Medicine. 2012;9(11): e1001336.

Figure 3:

Blecher E. The economics of tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries. PhD Dissertation. University of Cape Town. 2011.

Figure 4:

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Cigarette Affordability. 2014. Available from: http://global.tobaccofreekids.org/files/pdfs/en/TAX_Cigarette_affordability_summary_en.pdf, accessed March 19, 2014.

Vaccines

Quote:

Desiderius Erasmus Quotes. Available from: http://www .brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/d/desiderius148997.html, accessed August 15, 2014.

Decrease in primary liver cancer in Taiwan:

Chang MH, You SL, Chen CJ, et al. Decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B vaccinees: a 20-year follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(19):1348-55.

Text:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten Great Public Health Achievements — Worldwide, 2001–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:814-18.

Forman D, de Martel C, Lacey CJ, et al. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F12-23.

Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859): 2095-128.

Map: Hepatitis B immunization coverage

World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory Data Repository, Hepatitis B (HepB3) Immunization Coverage of 1-year-olds, Data by Country, 1985-2012 [online database]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/ghodata/, accessed August 15, 2014.

Map: Human papillomavirus introduction

World Health Organization. WHO/Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals (IVB) Database. May 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/immunization/en/, accessed May 29, 2013.

Figure 1:

Forman D, de Martel C, Lacey CJ, et al. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F12-23.

Early Detection

Quote:

Buddha Quotes. Available from: http://www.brainyquote.com/ quotes/quotes/b/buddha387356.html, accessed August 15, 2014.

HPV screening in low- and medium-resource settings could reduce cervical cancer by 30%: Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Preventing cervical cancer worldwide. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau; 2004.

Goldie SJ, Gaffikin L, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, et al. Cost- effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in 5 developing countries. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2158-68.

Sigmoidoscopy reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality:

Atkin WS, Edwards R, Kralj-Hans I, et al. Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9726):1624-33.

Text:

Arbyn M, Ronco G, Anttila A, et al. Evidence regarding human papillomavirus testing in secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F88-F99.

Hewitson P, Glasziou P, Watson E, Towler B, Irwig L. Cochrane systematic review of colorectal cancer screening using the fecal occult blood test (hemoccult): an update. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(6):1541-9.

Humphrey LL, Deffebach M, Pappas M, et al. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159:411-20.

Ilic D, Neuberger MM, Djulbegovic M, Dahm P. Screening for prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD004720.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Volume 7. Breast Cancer Screening. Lyon: IARC Press; 2007.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Volume 10. Cervix Cancer Screening. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005.

Leung WK, Wu MS, Kakugawa Y, Kim JJ, Yeoh KG, Goh KL, et al. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(3):279-87.

Menon U, Griffin M, Gentry-Maharaj A. Ovarian cancer screening–current status, future directions. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;132(2):490-5.

Mittra I, Mishra GA, Singh S, et al. A cluster randomized, controlled trial of breast and cervix cancer screening in Mumbai, India: Methodology and interim results after three rounds of screening. Int J Cancer. 2010;126(4):976-84.

Ronco G, Dillner J, Elfstrom KM, et al. Efficacy of HPV-based screening for prevention of invasive cervical cancer: Follow- up of four European randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2014;383(9916):524-32.

Sankaranarayanan R, Esmy PO, Rajkumar R, et al. Effect of visual screening on cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Tamil Nadu, India: A cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;370(9585):398-406.

Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Thara S, et al. Long term effect of visual screening on oral cancer incidence and mortality in a randomized trial in Kerala, India. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(4):314-21.

Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Thara S, et al. Clinical breast examination: Preliminary results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in India. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(19):1476-80.

Shastri SS, Mittra I, Mishra GA, et al. Effect of VIA Screening by primary health workers: Randomized controlled study in Mumbai, India. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(3):dju009.

Wolff T, Tai E, Miller T. Screening for skin cancer: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(3):194-8.

Maps:

Data provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Section of Early Detection and Prevention, 2014.

Figure 1:

Photos courtesy of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Section of Early Detection and Prevention, 2014.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

Management and Treatment

Quote:

Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1186-93.

Availability of radiotherapy machines:

Abdel-Wahab M, Rosenblatt E, Meghzifene A, et al. Changes in the availability of radiation oncology services in Africa: A report from the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2011. Radiological Society of North America 2011 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, November 26 – December 2, 2011, Chicago IL.

Barton MB, Frommer M, Shafiq J. Role of radiotherapy in cancer control in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:584–95.

Ekortari A, Ndom P, Sacks A. A study of patients who appear with far advanced cancer at Yaounde General Hospital, Cameroon, Africa. Psychooncology. 2007;16(3):255–57.

Gomes Junior SC, Almeida RT. Simulation model for estimating the cancer care infrastructure required by the public health system. Pan Am J Public Health. 2009;25(2):113-9.

The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care. Radiotherapy for cancer – a systematic literature review. Acta Oncol. 1996;2:35.

Van de Werf E, Verstraete J, Lievens Y. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution. Radiother Oncol. 2012;102:148–53.

Williams MV, Drinkwater KL. Geographical variation in radiotherapy services across the UK in 2007 and the effect of deprivation, Clin Oncol. 2009;21:431-40.

Text:

Abdel-Wahab M, Rosenblatt E, Meghzifene A, et al. Changes in the availability of radiation oncology services in Africa: A report from the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2011. Radiological Society of North America 2011 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, November 26 – December 2, 2011, Chicago IL.

Adesina A, Chumba D, Nelson AM, et al. Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):e152-7.

Barton MB, Frommer M, Shafiq J. Role of radiotherapy in cancer control in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:584–95.

Boyle P, D’Onofrio A, Maisonneuve P, et al. Measuring progress against cancer in Europe: has the 15% decline targeted for 2000 come about? Ann Oncol. 2003;14: 1312–25.

Coleman MP, Quaresma M, Berrino F, et al., for the CONCORD Working Group. Cancer survival in five continents: a worldwide population-based study (CONCORD). Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:730–56.

Elzawawy A. Science and affordability of cancer drugs and radiotherapy in the world— Win-win scenarios. In: Mohan R, editors. Advances in Cancer Management. Rijeka: InTech; 2012. p.255-278. Available from:
http://www.intechopen.com/ articles/show/title/science-and-affordability-of-cancer-drugs-and-radiotherapy-in-the-world, accessed July 11, 2014.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http:// globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Hanna TP, Kangolle ACT. Cancer control in developing countries: Using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency. BMC International Health Hum Rights. 2010;10:24.

Kingham TP, Alatise OI, Vanderpuye V, et al. Treatment of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):e158-67.

Ott JJ, Ullrich A, Miller AB. The importance of early symptom recognition in the context of early detection and cancer survival. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:2743–48.

Patel JD, Galsky MD, Chagpar AB, Pyle D, Loehrer PJ Sr. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle- income countries. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(22):3097-102.

Price P, Sikora K. Treatment of cancer, 5th ed. London: Arnold Hodder, 2008.

Sener SF, Grey N. The global burden of cancer. J Surgical Oncol. 2005;92: 1–3.

Sullivan R, Peppercorn J, Sikora K, et al. Delivering affordable cancer care in high income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12: 933–80.

Van de Werf E, Verstraete J, Lievens Y. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution. Radiother Oncol. 2012;102:148–53.

Map: Radiotherapy coverage

Data provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2014.

Methods: For this estimation, the assumptions are that 60% of cancer patients need radiotherapy, and one radiotherapy machine can treat 500 new patients per year (based on references below). Data on cancer incidence generated from GLOBOCAN 2012 (IARC). Radiotherapy machines are self-reported by countries on a voluntary basis to the IAEA’s Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC). Information on countries with no radiotherapy machines was provided by IAEA’s Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) (Dec 2013).

References for radiotherapy map:

Boyle P, D’Onofrio A, Maisonneuve P, et al. Measuring progress against cancer in Europe: has the 15% decline targeted for 2000 come about? Annals Oncol. 2003;14:1312–25.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Ringborg U, Bergqvist D, Brorsson B, et al. The Swedish council on technology assessment in health care (SBU) systematic overview of radiotherapy for cancer. Acta Oncol. 2003;42:357–65.

Van de Werf E, Verstraete J, Lievens Y. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution. Radiother Oncol. 2012;102:148–53.

Figure 1:

World Health Organization. Essential drugs for cancer chemotherapy: Memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull WHO. 1985;63: 999–1002.

World Health Organization. WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 18th List. April 2013. Available from:

http://www .who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/18th_EML _Final_web_8Jul13.pdf, accessed July 11, 2014.

Figure 2:

International Atomic Energy Agency. Available from: http://cancer.iaea.org/agart.asp, accessed July 11, 2014.

Figure 3:

Adesina A, Chumba D, Nelson AM, et al. Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):e152-7.

Pain Control

Quote:

Life Before Death. Dir. Mike Hill. DVD. Melbourne: Moonshine Movies; 2012.

More than 2.7 million people die in pain each year:

Treat the Pain. Access to essential pain medicines brief (2011 data). 2013. Available from: http://www.treatthepain .org/, accessed January 7, 2014.

Text:

Foley KM, Wagner JL, Joranson DE, Gelband H. Pain control for people with cancer and AIDS. In: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 981–94.

Treat the Pain. Data. 2013. Available from: http://www .treatthepain.org/, accessed January 7, 2014.

World Health Organization. WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/, accessed August 15, 2014.

Map:

Treat the Pain. Access to essential pain medicines brief (2011 data). 2013. Available from: http://www.treatthepain .org/, accessed January 7, 2014

Cancer Registries

Quote:

Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development. Let’s face the facts. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2012. Available at: http://gicr.iarc.fr/files/ resources/20120822-BrochureGICR_en.pdf. Accessed July 11, 2014.

Only 9 low- and medium HDI countries have high-quality registry data:
Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development. Let’s face the facts. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2014. Available at: http://gicr.iarc.fr/files/ resources/20140424-Brochure2014.pdf. Accessed July 11, 2014.

Text:

Bray F, Znaor A, Cueva P, et al. The role and status of population-based cancer registration. In: Planning and developing population-based cancer registration in low- and middle-income settings. IARC Technical Report No. 23. Lyon; IARC. pp. 3-7.

Doll R, Payne P, Waterhouse JAH (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. I. Geneva; Union Internationale Contre le Cancer; 1966.

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X (electronic version) Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr/CI5-X, accessed July 11, 2014.

Mathers CD, Fat DM, Inoue M, Rao C, Lopez AD. Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(3):171-7.

Map: Quality of cancer registry data:

Bray F, Znaor A, Cueva P, et al. The role and status of population-based cancer registration. In: Planning and Developing Population-Based Cancer Registration in Low- and Middle-Income Settings. IARC Technical Report

No. 23. Lyon; IARC. pp. 3-7.

Map: Quality of vital registration data:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http:// globocan.iarc.fr, accessed July 11, 2014.

Mathers CD, Fat DM, Inoue M, Rao C, Lopez AD. Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(3):171-7.

Figure 1:

Curado MP, Edwards B, Shin HR, et al. (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. IX. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 160. Lyon: IARC; 2007.

Doll R, Muir CS, Waterhouse JAH (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. II. Geneva; Union Internationale Contre le Cancer; 1970.

Doll R, Payne P, Waterhouse JAH (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. I. Geneva; Union Internationale Contre le Cancer; 1966.

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X (electronic version) Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr/CI5-X, accessed July 11, 2014.

Muir CS, Waterhouse J, Mack T, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. V. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 88. Lyon: IARC; 1987.

Parkin, DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VI. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 120. Lyon: IARC; 1992.

Parkin, DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VIII. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 155. Lyon: IARC; 2002.

Parkin, DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VII. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 143. Lyon: IARC; 1997.

Waterhouse J, Muir CS, Correa P, Powell J (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. III. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 15. Lyon: IARC; 1976.

Waterhouse J, Muir CS, Shanmugaratnam K, Powell J (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. IV. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 42. Lyon: IARC; 1982.

Figure 2:

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X (electronic version) Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr/CI5-X, accessed July 11, 2014.

Mathers CD, Fat DM, Inoue M, Rao C, Lopez AD. Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(3):171-7.

Research

Quote:

Gaither CC, Cavazos-Gaither AE (Eds). Scientifically speaking: A book of quotations, 2nd Ed. London: The Institute of Physics; 2000. p. 333. Medicines and fundamental biology dominate:

Eckhouse S, Lewison G, Sullivan R. Trends in the global funding and activity of cancer research. Mol Oncol. 2008;2(1):20-32.

9% of cancer research is surgical:

Purushotham AD, Lewison G, Sullivan R. The state of research and development in global cancer surgery. Ann Surg. 2012;255(3):427-32.

Text:

Cazap E. A vision of independent clinical research in South America. ASCO Post. 2014;5(8).

Eckhouse S, Lewison G, Sullivan R. Trends in the global funding and activity of cancer research. Mol Oncol. 2008;2(1):20-32.

Seruga B, Sadikov A, Cazap EL, et al. Barriers and challenges to global clinical cancer research. Oncologist. 2014;19(1):61-7.

Shastri SS, Mittra I, Mishra GA, et al. Effect of VIA screening by primary health workers: randomized controlled study in Mumbai, India. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(3):dju009.

Strother RM, Asirwa FC, Busakhala NB, et al. AMPATH- Oncology: A model for comprehensive cancer care in sub- Saharan Africa. J Cancer Policy. 2013;1(3):e42-e8.

Sullivan R. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms. eCancerMedicalScience. 2007;1(53).

Sullivan R, Eckhouse S, Lewison G. Using bibliometrics to inform cancer research policy and spending. In: Monitoring financial flows for health research 2007. Geneva: Global Forum for Health Research; 2008. p. 67-78.

Sullivan R, Kowalczyk JR, Agarwal B, et al. New policies to address the global burden of childhood cancers. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(3):e125-35.

Sullivan R, Purushotham A. Towards an international cancer control plan: Policy solutions for the global cancer epidemic. International Centre for Migration, Health and Development, 2010.

Inset: Partnerships in India

Sullivan R, Badwe RA, Rath GK, et al. Cancer research in India: National priorities, global results. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(6):e213-22.

Figures 1 and 4:

Data provided by the Institute of Cancer Policy, UK, 2014.

Figure 2:

Eckhouse S, Sullivan R. A survey of public funding of cancer research in the European union. PLoS Med. 2006;3(7):e267.

Figure 3:

Purushotham AD, Lewison G, Sullivan R. The state of research and development in global cancer surgery. Ann Surg. 2012;255(3):427-32.

Investing in Cancer Prevention

Quote:

Mahatma Gandhi Quotes. Available from: http://www. brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/mahatmagan109078.html, accessed August 15, 2014.

HPV vaccine cost-effectiveness:

Goldie SJ, O’Shea M, Campos NG, Diaz M, Sweet S, Kim S-Y. Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16, 18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccine. 2008;26(32):4080–93.

Text:

Elkin EB, Bach PB. Cancer’s next frontier: Addressing high and increasing costs. JAMA. 2010;303(11):1086–7.

Goldie SJ, Gaffikin L, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, et al. Cost- Effectiveness of Cervical-Cancer Screening in Five Developing Countries. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(20): 2158–68.

Laxminarayan R, Chow J, Shahid-Salles SA. Intervention cost-effectiveness: Overview of main messages. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., eds. Disease control priorities in developing countries. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. p. 35–86.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. NHLBI Fact Book, Fiscal Year 2012. Bethesda, MD: NHLBI; 2012.

World Health Organization. Scaling up action against noncommunicable diseases: How much will it cost? Geneva: WHO; 2011.

Figure 1:

Australian Government. Budget at a Glance. Available from: http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/at_a_glance/html/ at_a_glance.htm, accessed April 30, 2014.

Chen P-C, Lee Y-C, Tsai S-T, Lai C-K. A cost-benefit analysis of the outpatient smoking cessation services in Taiwan from a societal viewpoint. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(5):522–30.

Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics of Taiwan. Central Government General Budget. Available from: http://eng.dgbas.gov.tw/ ct.asp?xItem=33683&CtNode=6002&mp=2, accessed April 30, 2014.

Hurley SF, Matthews JP. Cost-effectiveness of the Australian national tobacco campaign. Tob Control. 2008;17(6): 379–84.

Government of the Netherlands. Expenditure in 2014. Available from: http://www.government.nl/issues/budget/revenue- and-expenditure-in-2014/expenditure-in-2014, accessed April 30, 2014.

Lammers M, Kok L. Cost benefit analysis of dietary treatment. Dutch Society of Dietitians; 2012. Available from: http://www.seo.nl/uploads/media/2012-76a_Cost-benefit _analysis_of_dietary_treatment.pdf, accessed April 30, 2014.

National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable. Increasing colorectal cancer screening – saving lives and saving dollars: Screening 50 to 64 year olds reduces cancer costs to Medicare. [Internet]. 2007 Sep. Available from: http://action.acscan.org/site/DocServer/Increasing_Colorectal_Cancer_Screening_-_Saving _Lives_an.pdf?docID=18927, accessed April 30, 2014.

National School Lunch Program. NSLP Fact Sheet. 2013. Available from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/ NSLPFactSheet.pdf, accessed September 1, 2013.

Figure 2:

European Commission. EU budget 2009 – Financial Report. 2010. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/budget/library/biblio/ publications/2009/fin_report/fin_report_09_en.pdf, accessed April 30, 2014.

Luengo-Fernandez R, Leal J, Gray A, Sullivan R. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population- based cost analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(12):1165–74.

Figure 3:

World Health Organization. Scaling up action against noncommunicable diseases: How much will it cost? Geneva: WHO; 2011.

METHODS:
Ten countries with the largest estimated age-world- standardized cervical cancer mortality rate in 2012 according to GLOBOCAN. Estimates include the cost of one-off screening among women aged 35 to 45 years using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and immediate treatment of precancerous lesions using cryotherapy for those women who screen positive. The estimates reflect per-capita annual average cost of scaling up prevention of cervical cancer over the period 2010–2025 and are calculated based on the NCD costing tool developed by the World Health Organization. The target coverage level was set at 80% for 2025.

Figure 4:

Goldie SJ, O’Shea M, Campos NG, Diaz M, Sweet S, Kim S-Y. Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16, 18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccine. 2008;26(32):4080–93.

METHODS:
Assumes vaccination of 70% of a single birth cohort of 9-year-old girls in 2007 at cost of 25 international dollars (approximately US$5 per dose) per vaccinated girl.

Leveraging Existing Infrastructure

Quote:

Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: A call to action. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1186-93.

Text:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global Health – Health Protection. Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/fetp/, accessed July 11, 2014.

Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1186-93.

Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon. Available from: http:// pinkribbonredribbon.org/, accessed July 11, 2014.

Map:

Data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Field Epidemiology Training Program, 2014, and Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, 2014.

Figure 1:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global Health – Health Protection. Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/fetp/, accessed July 11, 2014.

Photo courtesy of the CDC Field Epidemiology Training Program, 2014.

Figure 2:

Data provided by Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, 2014. Photo courtesy of Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, 2014.

Figure 3:

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI). Available from: http://www.gavialliance.org/, accessed July 11, 2014.

Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1186-93.

Photo courtesy of Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, 2014.

Uniting Organizations

Quote:

Union for International Cancer Control. Annual Report – 2013. 2013. Available from: http://www.uicc.org/2013-annual -report, accessed August 18, 2014.

Text:

Union for International Cancer Control. World Cancer Declaration 2013. 2013. Available from: http://www.uicc.org/ world-cancer-declaration, accessed July 11, 2014.

Map:

Data provided by the Union for International Cancer Control, 2014.

Figure 1:

Union for International Cancer Control. Convening. Available from: http://www.uicc.org/convening, accessed July 11, 2014.

Figure 2:

Union for International Cancer Control. World Cancer Declaration 2013. 2013. Available from: http://www.uicc.org/ world-cancer-declaration, accessed July 11, 2014.

Global Relay For Life:

Text:

American Cancer Society. Global Relay for Life. 2014. Available from:
http://www.relayforlife.org/learn/relayeventsforeveryone/international-relay-for-life, accessed August 15, 2014.

American Cancer Society. Global Relay for Life 2012. 2012. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xe5AunMcdBI, accessed August 19, 2014.

Map and Figures 1 and 2:

Data provided by Global Relay For Life, American Cancer Society, 2014.

Photos:

Photos courtesy of Global Relay For Life, American Cancer Society, 2014.

Policies and Legislation:

Quote:

Ki-Moon B. Remarks to General Assembly meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases. UN News Centre. 2011. Available from: http://www.un.org/ apps/news/infocus/sgspeeches/search_full.asp?statID=1299, accessed August 15, 2014.

Economic toll of NCDs in low- and middle- income countries to reach US$21 trillion:
The NCD Alliance. NCD Alliance Briefing Paper: Tackling non-communicable diseases to enhance sustainable development. 2014. Available from: http://ncdalliance.org/sites/ default/files/NCD%20Alliance%20-%20NCDs%20and%20 Sustainable%20Development%20Brief_0.pdf, accessed August 15, 2014.

Text:

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. 2014. Available from: http:// global.tobaccofreekids.org/en, accessed August 15, 2014.

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI). Human papillomavirus vaccine support. Available from: http://www.gavialliance.org/support/nvs/human-papillomavirus-vaccine -support/, accessed August 15, 2014.

World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory data repository, hepatitis b (hepb3) immunization coverage of 1-year-olds, data by country, 1985-2012 [online database]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/ghodata/, accessed August 15, 2014.

World Health Organization. WHO global action plan 2013-2020 for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. 2013. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed August 15, 2014.

World Health Organization. WHO 2013 non-communicable disease country capacity survey (unpublished results). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.

Map:

World Health Organization. WHO 2013 non-communicable disease country capacity survey (unpublished results). Data provided by the Department of Prevention of Non- communicable Diseases, Non-communicable Diseases and Mental Cluster, World Health Organization, 2014.

METHODS:
The survey included 178 WHO member states. A member state was considered to have an operational cancer control policy if the country indicated that it has either a national non-communicable disease control policy that includes cancer or a national standalone cancer control policy, or both. A member state was considered not to have an operational cancer control policy if it did not indicate it has a cancer control policy. Countries with missing data were not survey recipients.

Figure 1:

Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, Jané-Llopis E, et al. The global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases. Geneva: World Economic Forum; 2011.

The NCD Alliance. NCD Alliance Briefing Paper: Tackling non-communicable diseases to enhance sustainable development. 2014. Available from: http://ncdalliance.org/sites/ default/files/NCD%20Alliance%20-%20NCDs%20and%20 Sustainable%20Development%20Brief_0.pdf, accessed August 15, 2014.

Figure 2:

World Health Organization. WHO global action plan 2013- 2020 for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. 2013. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed August 15, 2014.