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The Burden

The Burden of Cancer

Cancer the most important cause of death worldwide:

World Health Organization. Disease and injury regional estimates, 2000–2011. Global Summary Statistics. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden _disease/estimates_regional_2000_2011/en/, accessed July 25, 2014.

Quote:

World Health Organization. Message of the WHO Regional Director, Dr Luis Gomes Sambo, on the occasion of World Cancer Day 2014. 2014. Available from: http://www.afro .who.int/en/rdo/speeches/3980-world-cancer-day-2014.html, accessed August 15, 2014.

Text:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Map: Years of life lost due to cancer

Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10. Lyon: IARC; 2010.

Map: Most commonly diagnosed cancers

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Figure 3:

World Health Organization. Disease and injury regional estimates, 2000–2011. Global summary statistics. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden _disease/estimates_regional_2000_2011/en/, accessed July 25, 2014.

Lung Cancer

One-third of new lung cancer cases worldwide occur in China

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Text:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

Maps:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Figures 1 and 3:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

Breast Cancer

Quote:

Schultz, DW. Every Woman Should Know. Available from: http://wassermanschultz.house.gov/2010/03/susan-g-komen -for-the-cure-every-woman-should-know.shtml, accessed June 10, 2014.

New breast cancer cases and deaths:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Text:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Maps and Figures 1 and 3:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

World Health Organization. WHO Cancer Mortality Database [internet]. Available from: http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/ WHOdb.htm, accessed May 27, 2014.

Cancer in Children

Quote:

Albert Einstein Quotes. Available from: https://www.goodreads .com/quotes/624713-there-is-no-great-discoveries-and -advances-as-long-as, accessed May 14, 2014.

Over half of childhood cancers are leukemias, lymphomas, or brain tumors:
Parkin DM, Kramárová E, Draper GJ, et al (Eds). International Incidence of Childhood Cancer. Vol. 2 (IARC Scientific Publications No. 144). Lyon: IARC; 1998.

Text:

Baade PD, Youlden DR, Valery PC, et al. Trends in incidence of childhood cancer in Australia, 1983-2006. Br J Cancer. 2010;102(3):620-6.

Bao PP, Zheng Y, Wang CF, et al. Time trends and characteristics of childhood cancer among children age 0–14 in Shanghai. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:13–16.

Bunin GR. Nongenetic causes of childhood cancers: evidence from international variation, time trends, and risk factor studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;199(2):91-103.

de Moor JS, Mariotto AB, Parry C, et al. Cancer survivors in the United States: Prevalence across the survivorship trajectory and implications for care. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:561-70.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 20, 2013.

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X. Lyon: IARC; 2013. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 6, 2013.

Kaatsch P, Steliarova-Foucher E, Crocetti E, et al. Time trends of cancer incidence in European children (1978-1997): report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(13):1961-71.

Kohler BA, Ward E, McCarthy BJ, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2007, featuring tumors of the brain and other nervous system. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:714–36.

Magrath I, Steliarova-Foucher E, Epelman S, et al. Paediatric cancer in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(3):e104-16.

Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, et al. Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1572-82.

Parkin DM, Kramárová E, Draper GJ, et al (Eds). International Incidence of Childhood Cancer. Vol. 2 (IARC Scientific Publications No. 144). Lyon: IARC; 1998.

Stiller CA. Epidemiology and genetics of childhood cancer. Oncogene. 2004; 23:6429–44.

Stiller CA, Desandes E, Danon SE, et al. Cancer incidence and survival in European adolescents (1978–1997): Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:2006–18.

Stiller CA, Kroll ME, Eatock EM. Survival from childhood cancer. In: Childhood Cancer in Britain: Incidence, survival, mortality. Stiller CA (Editor). Oxford: Oxford UP; 2007. pp 131-204.

Vassal G, Zwaan CM, Ashley D, et al. Improving cancer care for children and young people: New drugs for children and adolescents with cancer: the need for novel development pathways. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14: e117–24.

Wakeford R. The risk of childhood leukaemia following exposure to ionising radiation–a review. J Radiol Prot. 2013;33(1):1-25.

Figure 1:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan. iarc.fr, accessed December 20, 2013.

Figure 2:

Baade PD, Youlden DR, Valery PC, et al. Trends in incidence of childhood cancer in Australia, 1983-2006. Br J Cancer. 2010;102(3):620-6.

Bao PP, Zheng Y, Wang CF, et al. Time trends and characteristics of childhood cancer among children age 0–14 in Shanghai. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:13–6.

Fajardo-Gutiérrez A, Juárez-Ocaña S, González-Miranda G, et al. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: Importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study). BMC Cancer. 2007; 7:68

Kohler BA, Ward E, McCarthy BJ, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2007, featuring tumors of the brain and other nervous system. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103:714–36.

Kaatsch P, Spix J. German Childhood Cancer Registry – Annual Report 2011 (1980-2010). Mainz: University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University; 2012. Available from http://www.kinderkrebsregister.de/extern/ veroeffentlichungen/jahresberichte/aktueller-jahresbericht/index. html?L=1, accessed May 30, 2013.

Lacour B, Guyot-Goubin A, Guissou S, et al. Incidence of childhood cancer in France: National Children Cancer Registries, 2000–2004. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19(3):173-81.

Moradi A, Semnani S, Roshandel G, et al. Incidence of childhood cancers in Golestan province of Iran. Iran J Pediatr. 2010;20(3):335-342.

Moreno F, Loria D, Abriata G, et al. Childhood cancer: Incidence and early deaths in Argentina, 2000-2008. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(2):465-73.

Parkin DM, Ferlay J, Hamdi-Chérif M, et al (Eds). Childhood cancer. In: Cancer in Africa, epidemiology and prevention. IARC Scientific Publications No. 153. Lyon: IARC; 2003. pp. 381-96.

Swaminathan R, Rama R, Shanta V. Childhood cancers in Chennai, India, 1990–2001: Incidence and survival. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(11):2607-11.

Wiangnon S, Veerakul G, Nuchprayoon I, et al. Childhood Cancer Incidence and Survival 2003-2005, Thailand: Study from the Thai Pediatric Oncology Group. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(9):2215-20.

Figure 3:

Baade PD, Youlden DR, Valery PC, et al. Population-based survival estimates for childhood cancer in Australia during the period 1997–2006. Br J Cancer. 2010; 103(11): 1663–70.

Bao PP, Zheng Y, Wu CX, et al. Population-based survival for childhood cancer patients diagnosed during 2002-2005 in Shanghai, China. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;59(4):657-61.

Swaminathan R, Rama R, Shanta V. Childhood cancers in Chennai, India, 1990–2001: Incidence and survival. Int J Cancer. 2008;122(11):2607-11.

Wiangnon S, Veerakul G, Nuchprayoon I, et al. Childhood cancer incidence and survival 2003-2005, Thailand: Study from the Thai Pediatric Oncology Group. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(9):2215-20.

Figure 4:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed December 20, 2013.

Figure 5:

Fast Stats: An interactive tool for access to SEER cancer statistics. Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats, accessed November 25, 2013.

Human Development Index Transitions

HDI transitions and cancer occurrence:

Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, et al. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008-2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(8): 790-801.

Text:

Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, et al. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008-2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(8): 790-801.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Map:

United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2013. New York: United Nations Development Programme; 2013. Available from: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en _complete.pdf, accessed May 14, 2014.

Figure 1:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed May 14, 2014.

2025 projections provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2014.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 23, 2014.

Figure 3:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed May 14, 2013.

Geographic Diversity: Overview

Quote:

Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature. 2001;411(6835):390-5.

Text:

de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncology. 2012;13(6):607-15.

Danaei G, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, et al. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment
of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet. 2005;366(9499):1784-93.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed March 20, 2013.

Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature. 2001;411(6835):390-5.

Maps:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Available from: http://globocan .iarc.fr, accessed March 20, 2013.

Figure 1:

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (Eds). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X (electronic version) Lyon, IARC; 2013. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed May 14, 2014.

Figure 2:

Danaei G, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, et al. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet. 2005;366(9499):1784-93.

de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncology. 2012;13(6):607-15.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

Quote:

World Health Organization. Preventing chronic diseases: A vital investment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. Available from: http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/ contents/foreword.pdf?ua=1, accessed May 23, 2014.

Text:

de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: A review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;13(6):607-615.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Maps and Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Figure 3:

Chokunonga E, Borok M, Chirenje Z, et al. Trends in the incidence of cancer in the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe 1991-2010. Int J Cancer. 2013;133(7):721–9.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean

Gallbladder rates in Chile

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Text:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 13, 2013.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer Mortality Database. Lyon; IARC; 2013 [internet]. Available from: http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/WHOdb.htm, accessed December 13, 2013.

Map and Figure 1:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 13, 2013.

Figure 3:

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer Mortality Database. Lyon; IARC; 2013 [internet]. Available from: http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/WHOdb.htm, accessed December 13, 2013.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Northern America

Quote:

Broder S. Progress and Challenges in the National Cancer Program. In: Origins of human cancer: a comprehensive review. Brugge J, Curran T, Harlow E, McCormick F (Eds). Plainview, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1991.

Lung cancer rates in Kentucky versus Utah:

Copeland G, Lake A, Firth R, et al (eds). Cancer in North America: 2007-2011. Volume Two: Registry-specific cancer incidence in the United States and Canada. Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries: 2014.

Text:

Edwards BK, Noone AM, Mariotto AB, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2010, featuring prevalence of comorbidity and impact on survival among persons with lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Cancer. 2013;120(9):1290–314.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Jemal A, Thun MJ, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(23):1672-94.

Simard EP, Ward EM, Siegel R, Jemal A. Cancers with increasing incidence trends in the United States: 1999 through 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(2):118–28.

Ward E, Halpern M, Schrag N, et al. Association of insurance with cancer care utilization and outcomes. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58(1):9-31.

Map:

Copeland G, Lake A, Firth R, et al (eds). Cancer in North America: 2007-2011. Volume Two: Registry-specific cancer incidence in the United States and Canada. Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries: 2014.

DATA QUALITY AND EXCLUSIONS:
Some states and provinces only met quality/fit-for-use standards for all years; years for which data did not meet quality standards are excluded. Arkansas rates are based on 2007–2009 data. Nevada rates are based on 2007–2010 data. Nunavut rates are based on 2007 data only.

Minnesota, Quebec, and Puerto Rico were not included in Cancer incidence in North America 2007–2011 data due to data issues.

Figure 1:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Figure 2:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 13, 2013.

Figure 3:

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (www.seer.cancer.gov) SEER*Stat Database: Mortality – All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1969-2010) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment>, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released April 2013. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS (www.cdc.gov/nchs).

Figure 4:

National Cancer Database, American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer, 2011 Data Submission. American College of Surgeons, 2013.

METHODS:
Data included patients diagnosed in 2005 and 2006, and excluded patients within unknown stage, age, ZIP code, and race/ethnicity information. Patients who were of race/ ethnicity other than white, black, or Hispanic were also excluded. Covariates included in the model included age, race, sex, ZIP code-based income and cancer site.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Southern, Eastern, and Southeastern Asia

Quote:

Hippocrates. Hippocratic writings. Lloyd GER (Ed). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin; 1978.

Oral cancer in India:

Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, et al. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(7):667–75.

Text:

Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, et al. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(7):667–75.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):69–90.

Hwang EW, Cheung R. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection. N A J Med Sci. 2011;4(1):7–13.

Kimman M, Norman R, Jan S, et al. The burden of cancer in member countries of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13: 411–20.

Sriplung H, Wiangnon S, Sontipong S, et al. Cancer incidence trends in Thailand, 1989-2000. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:239–44.

WHO. Background document for including household air pollution as a regional target for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Part of Technical Working Group Meeting on Regional Action Plan and Targets for Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases held at Bangkok, Thailand from 11-13 June 2013. 2013. Available from http://www.searo.who.int/entity/noncommunicable_diseases/events/ncd_twg_bangkok_technical_paper_household_air_pollution.pdf, accessed May 14, 2014.

WHO. Resolution of the WHO Regional Committee on South East Asia: Regional action plan and targets for the control of non-communicable diseases- 2013-2030. SEA/R66/R6. 2013. Available from http://www.searo.who.int/mediacentre/ events/governance/rc/66/r6.pdf, accessed May 14, 2014.

Maps and Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Figure 3:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 13, 2013.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Europe

Text:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for
40 countries in 2012. Eur J Cancer. 2013 ;49(6):1374–403.

Lortet-Tieulent J, Renteria E, Sharp L, et al. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010. Eur J Cancer. 2013; pii: S0959-8049(13)00952-0.

Maps and Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 12, 2013.

Figure 3:

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer Mortality Database. Lyon; IARC; 2013 [internet]. Available from: http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/WHOdb.htm, accessed December 13, 2013.

Figure 4:

Ferlay J, Bray F, Steliarova-Foucher E, Forman D. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, CI5plus: IARC CancerBase [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr, accessed December 13, 2013.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer Mortality Database. Lyon; IARC; 2013 [internet]. Available from: http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/WHOdb.htm, accessed December 13, 2013.

Geographic Diversity: Cancer in Northern Africa, Central Asia, and West Asia

Quote:

Brown R, Kerr K, Haoudi A, Darzi A. Tackling cancer burden in the Middle East: Qatar as an example. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(11):e501-8.

Esophageal cancer belt:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed April 4, 2014.

Eser S, Yakut C, Özdemir R, et al. Cancer incidence rates in Turkey in 2006: A detailed registry based estimation. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(6):1731-9.

Text:

Boffetta P. Epidemiology of environmental and occupational cancer. Oncogene. 2004; 23:6392-403.

Boyle P, Levin B. World Cancer Report 2008. Lyon: IARC Press; 2008.

Center MM, Jemal A. International trends in liver cancer incidence rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2362-8.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed April 4, 2014.

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Maps and Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed April 4, 2014.

Figure 3:

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Cancer Survivorship

Quote:

Mukherjee S. The Emperor of Maladies: A Biography of Cancer. New York: Scribner; 2010.

Text, Map, Figures 1 and 2:

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed May 19, 2014.

Cancer Survival

Text:

Allemani C, Weir HK, Carreira H, et al. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995-2009: analysis of individual data for 25,676,887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2). Lancet 2015; 385: 977-1010.

Methods:

We analysed individual tumour records for 25.7 million adults (15-99 years) diagnosed during 1995-2009 with a cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary or prostate, or leukaemia, and 75,000 children (0-14 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries. Patients were followed up to 31 December 2009. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated five-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality by single year of age, sex, calendar year (and race) in each country or region. Survival estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights.