Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death within Oceania. Since the 1980s, lung cancer mortality among men has declined in Australia because of substantial declines in the prevalence of smoking. In contrast, rates continue to increase among women because of the lag in smoking reduction.
Incidence rates of breast cancer in ANZ are up to four times higher than in other countries in Oceania because of reproductive factors and mammography utilization. In contrast, cervix and liver cancers are more common in areas of Oceania other than ANZ. These cancers are linked to a high prevalence of human papillomavirus and hepatitis B infections. Organized screening for cervix cancer in Australia has achieved a decline in incidence.
Melanoma varies 35-fold, with ANZ rates around 35 per 100,000. ANZ has the highest incidence globally due to people of European descent being exposed to high levels of solar radiation. Within Australia, incidence varies with latitude.