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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes over 750,000 deaths annually, including 340,000 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. HCC results from chronic HBV infection, and the risk of chronic infection is greatest if transmission occurs during birth and early childhood. Highly effective vaccines for hepatitis B have been available since 1982 as a 3-dose series. To prevent mother-to-child transmission, the first dose should be given within 24 hours of birth, and at least two additional doses should be included as part of routine childhood vaccination. Through mid-2013, 181 countries had introduced hepatitis B vaccination. Globally, 3-dose vaccination coverage among children reached 75%, but less than half of the countries report offering a birth dose. Hepatitis B vaccination is estimated to avert over 700,000 future HBV deaths for every vaccinated birth cohort globally.

Hepatitis B vaccination is estimated to avert over 700,000 future HBV deaths for every vaccinated birth cohort globally.

HPV accounts for an important proportion of cases for some cancer sites; for cervical cancer, virtually all cases are attributable to HPV infection.

Percentage of cancer cases attributable to HPV infection worldwide and total number of new cases, 2008

Download High Res Text alternative: Percentage of cancer cases attributable to HPV infection worldwide and total number of new cases, 2008
Chart showing that virtually all cases of cervical cancer are attributable to HPV infection

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 610,000 cancers annually, 87% of which are cervical cancers, 9.5% other anogenital and 3.5% oropharyngeal. Two HPV vaccines have been available since 2006; both are highly effective and safe, and protect against HPV types 16 and 18— types that cause over 70% of all cervical cancers and the majority of other cancers that are caused by HPV. The vaccines are given as a 3-dose or a 2-dose series. The target group for HPV vaccination is young adolescent girls in most countries. A few countries also recommend vaccination for boys. The first countries to introduce HPV vaccine were high-income countries, due to the cost of vaccines. Middle- and low-income countries started to introduce HPV vaccine 3-6 years later. By mid-2013, 45 countries had introduced HPV vaccination.

“Prevention is better than cure.”

Desiderius Erasmus